It is well known that energy storage can be divided into mechanical storage and chemical storage. Mechanical storage can be further divided into pumped storage, compressed air energy storage, and flywheel energy storage; chemical storage can be divided into lead-acid batteries, nickel batteries, lithium batteries, flow batteries, and sodium-sulfur batteries.
Lead-acid energy storage system battery
It is a battery with the electrode mainly made of lead and its oxides, and the electrolyte is sulfuric acid solution. The main component of the positive electrode in the discharge state of the lead-acid energy storage system battery is lead dioxide, and the main component of the negative electrode is lead. In the charged state, the important components of the positive and negative electrodes are both lead sulfate. Its advantages are: safety sealing, gas release system, simple maintenance, long service life, stable quality, high reliability; disadvantages are large lead pollution and low energy density (i.e., too heavy).
Nickel-based energy storage system battery
Nickel-hydrogen batteries are a type of high-performance rechargeable battery. The positive electrode of nickel-hydrogen batteries is mainly composed of Ni(OH)2, and the negative electrode is a metal hydride, also known as a hydrogen-absorbing alloy (the electrode is called a hydrogen-absorbing electrode). The electrolyte is a 6mol/L potassium hydroxide solution. Its important advantages are: high energy density, fast charge and discharge speed, light weight, long service life, no environmental pollution; disadvantages are slight memory effect, more management issues, and easy melting of individual battery separators.
Lithium-based energy storage system battery
Lithium-ion batteries are a type of battery that uses lithium metal or lithium alloy as the negative electrode material and uses a non-aqueous electrolyte solution. Due to the extremely active chemical nature of lithium metal, the processing, storage, and use of lithium metal have very high environmental requirements. With the development of science and technology, lithium-ion ess batteries have now become mainstream. Its important advantages are: long service life, high energy storage density, light weight, strong adaptability; disadvantages are poor safety, explosion risk, high cost, and limited usage conditions.
Flow energy storage system battery
Flow ess storage system batteries are devices suitable for fixed large-scale energy storage. Compared with commonly used lead-acid batteries and nickel-cadmium batteries, flow ess storage system batteries have the advantages of independently designing power and energy storage capacity (the energy storage medium is stored outside the battery), high efficiency, long service life, deep discharge, and environmental friendliness. It is one of the preferred technologies for large-scale energy storage. Its important advantages are flexible layout, long cycle life, fast response, and no harmful emissions.
Sodium-sulfur energy storage system battery
Sodium-sulfur batteries are secondary batteries with metallic sodium as the negative electrode, sulfur as the positive electrode, and ceramic tubes as the electrolyte separator. Under certain operating conditions, the reversible reaction between sodium ions and sulfur that occurs through the electrolyte separator forms the release and storage of energy. Its important advantages are: specific energy up to 760 Wh/kg, no self-discharge phenomenon, discharge efficiency can almost reach 100%, and life span can reach 10-15 years; disadvantages are high temperature melting of sulfur and sodium at 350°C.
Ternary lithium-ion energy storage system battery
Ternary polymer lithium-ion batteries refer to lithium-ion batteries with nickel-cobalt-manganese lithium as the positive electrode material. Ternary composite positive electrode materials are made from nickel salts, cobalt salts, manganese salts, and can adjust the proportion of nickel, cobalt, and manganese according to actual needs. Compared with lithium ion batteries with lithium cobalt oxide as the positive electrode, ternary material batteries have higher safety, but lower voltage, resulting in a noticeable lack of capacity when used in mobile phones. Its important advantages are good cycle performance; disadvantages are limited usage.
Lithium iron phosphate energy storage system battery
Lithium iron phosphate ess storage system batteries refer to lithium-ion batteries with lithium iron phosphate as the positive electrode material. The positive electrode materials of lithium-ion batteries mainly include lithium cobalt oxide, lithium manganese oxide, lithium nickel oxide, ternary materials, and lithium iron phosphate. Among them, lithium cobalt oxide is the positive electrode material used in the vast majority of lithium-ion batteries currently in use. Its important advantages are improved safety performance, improved life span, good high temperature performance, large capacity, no memory effect, light weight, and environmental friendliness; disadvantages are micro-short circuits, low energy density, high manufacturing cost, poor product consistency, and intellectual property issues.