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Introduction to Battery Energy Storage Technology

1. The principle of battery energy storage technology

Energy storage technology refers to a series of related technologies that store electrical energy through physical or chemical methods and release it when needed. Generally speaking, according to the different ways of storing energy, it can be classified into mechanical energy storage, electromagnetic energy storage and electrochemical energy storage.

Mechanical energy storage can be divided into pumped water energy storage, compressed air energy storage, and flywheel energy storage. Electromagnetic energy storage mainly includes superconducting magnetic energy storage and supercapacitor energy storage.

The way of electrochemical energy storage is to store and release electrical energy in the form of chemical energy. The current electrochemical energy storage mainly includes batteries and electrochemical capacitors to achieve energy storage. Commonly used battery energy storage includes lead-acid batteries, lead-carbon batteries, sodium-sulfur batteries, liquid-sulfur batteries, and lithium-ion batteries.

Electrochemical energy storage technology has the advantages of high efficiency, application flexibility, and fast response, and gradually occupies an increasingly important position in the electric energy storage market.

2. Characteristics and main uses of battery energy storage technology

In order to promote the optimization and upgrading of the energy industry and achieve clean and low-carbon development, in recent years, China has vigorously developed clean energy, wind power and photovoltaics have achieved leapfrog development, and the proportion of installed capacity of new energy has increased day by day. However, with the rapid development of clean energy, the grid connection of fluctuating and intermittent new energy has brought adverse effects on the grid from regulation and operation, safety control and many other aspects, which greatly limits the effective use of clean energy.

Battery energy storage power stations can be combined with distributed/centralized new energy power generation. Battery energy storage system technology is one of the effective ways to solve the problem of new energy power generation grid connection.

With the increasing scale of new energy power generation and the continuous development of battery energy storage technology, it will become a major key technology supporting China's clean energy development strategy.

As an important method of energy storage technology, battery energy storage has power and energy that can be flexibly configured according to different application requirements, has a fast response speed, and is not limited by external conditions such as geographical resources. The advantages of being suitable for large-scale applications and mass production make battery energy storage an irreplaceable position in cooperating with centralized/distributed new energy grid connection and grid operation assistance.

On the power generation side, large-scale battery energy storage power stations can be used as independent power stations to participate in power grid frequency regulation/voltage regulation, provide backup, peak shaving and valley filling, and can also cooperate with renewable energy power generation to increase renewable energy on-grid electricity; Alternative plan for transmission grid investment upgrade, delaying grid upgrade, battery energy storage and providing secondary frequency modulation services for the grid; on the distribution side, it can delay the upgrade of the distribution network, improve the safety and economy of the distribution network operation and improve acceptance The ability of distributed power generation; on the user side, price arbitrage can be carried out through peak-to-valley price differences, and participation in demand-side response can obtain benefits.

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